CHEMISTRY – I
01 ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1.1 Sub- atomic particles. 1.2 Atomic models- Rutherford’s Nuclear model of atom.
1.3 Developments to the Bohr’s model of atom. 1.3.1 Nature of electromagnetic radiation.
1.3.2 Particle nature of electromagnetic radiation- Planck’s quantum theory. 1.4 Bohr’s
model for hydrogen atom. 1.4.1 Explanation of line spectrum of hydrogen. 1.4.2 Limitations
of Bohr’s model. 1.5 Quantum mechanical considerations of sub atomic particles. 1.5.1 Dual
behaviour of matter. 1.5.2 Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. 1.6 Quantum mechanical
model of an atom. Important features of Quantum mechanical model of atom. 1.6.1 Orbitals
and quantum numbers. 1.6.2 Shapes of atomic orbitals. 1.6.3 Energies of orbitals. 1.6.4
Filling of orbitals in atoms, aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule of
maximum multiplicity. 1.6.5 Electronic configurations of atoms. 1.6.6 Stability of half filled
and completely filled orbitals.
02 CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY OF PROPERTIES
2.1 Need to classify elements. 2.2 Genesis of periodic classification. 2.3 Modern periodic law
and present form of the periodic table. 2.4 Nomenclature of elements with atomic number
greater than 100. 2.5 Electronic configuration of elements and the periodic table.
2.6 Electronic configuration and types of elements s.p.d. and f blocks. 2.7.1 Trends in
physical properties: (a) Atomic radius, (b) Ionic radius, (c) Variation of size in inner
transition elements, (d) Ionization enthalpy, (e) Electron gain enthalpy, (f) Electro
negativity. 2.7.2 Periodic trends in chemical properties: (a) Valence or Oxidation states,
(b) Anomalous properties of second period elements – diagonal relationship. 2.7.3 Periodic
trends and chemical reactivity
03 CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
3.1 Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bonding. 3.2 Ionic or electrovalent bond – Factors
favourable for the formation of ionic compounds-Crystal structure of sodium chloride-General
properties of ionic compounds. 3.3 Bond Parameters – bond length, bond angle, bond enthalpy,
bond order, and resonance-Polarity of bonds dipole moment. 3.4 Valence Shell Electron Pair
Repulsion (VSEPR) theories. Predicting the geometry of simple molecules. 3.5 Valence bond
theory-Orbital overlap concept-Directional properties of bonds-overlapping of atomic orbitals
strength of sigma and pi bonds-Factors favouring the formation of covalent bonds. 3.6
Hybridisation-different types of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals- shapes of simple
covalent molecules. 3.7 Coordinate bond -definition with examples. 3.8 Molecular orbital theory
– Formation of molecular orbitals. Linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO)-conditions for
combination of atomic orbitals – Energy level diagrams for molecular orbitals -Bonding in some
homo nuclear diatomic molecules- H2, He2, Li2, B2, C2, N2 and 02. 3.9 Hydrogen bonding-cause
of formation of hydrogen bond-Types of hydrogen bonds-inter and intra molecular-General
properties of hydrogen bonds.
04 STATES OF MATTER: GASES AND LIQUIDS
4. 1 Intermolecular forces. 4 2 Thermal Energy. 4.3 Intermolecular forces Vs Thermal
interactions. 4.4 The Gaseous State. 4.5 The Gas Laws. 4.6 Ideal gas equation.
4.7 Graham’s law of diffusion – Dalton’s Law of partial pressures. 4.8 Kinetic molecular
theory of gases. 4.9 Kinetic gas equation of an ideal gas (No derivation)- Deduction of gas
laws from Kinetic gas equation. 4.10 Distribution of molecular speeds – rms. average and
most probable speeds-Kinetic energy of gas molecules. 4.11 Behaviour of real gases –
Deviation from Ideal gas behaviour – Compressibility factor Vs Pressure diagrams of real
gases. 4.12 Liquefaction of gases. 4.13 Liquid State – Properties of Liquids in terms of Inter
molecular interactions – Vapour pressure. Viscosity and Surface tension (Qualitative idea
only. No mathematical derivation).
5.1 Some Basic Concepts – Properties of matter – uncertainty in Measurement-significant
figures, dimensional analysis 5.2 Laws of Chemical Combinations – Law of Conservation of
mass, law of definite proportions, law of multiple proportions, Gay Lussac’s law of gaseous
volumes, Dalton’s atomic theory, Avogadro law, principles and examples. 5.3 Atomic and
molecular masses- mole concept and molar mass concept of equivalent weight.
5.4 Percentage composition of compounds and calculations of empirical and molecular
formulae of compounds. 5.5 Stoichiometry and stoichiometric calculations.
5.6 Methods of expressing concentrations of solutions-mass percent, mole fraction,
molarity, molality and normality. 5.7 Redox reactions-classical idea of redox reactions,
oxidation and reduction reactions-redox reactions in terms of electron transfer. 5.8
Oxidation number concept. 5.9 Types of Redox reactions-combination, decomposition,
displacement and disproportionation reactions. 5.10 Balancing of redox reactions –
oxidation number method, half reaction (ioa-electron) method. 5.11 Redox reactions in
6.1 Thermodynamic terms. 6.1.1 The system and the surroundings. 6.1.2. Types of systems
and surroundings. 6.1.3 The state of the system. 6.1.4 The Internal Energy as a state
function, (a) Work (b) Heat (c) The general case, the first law of Thermodynamics. 6.2
Applications. 6.2.1 Work. 6.2.2 Enthalpy. H- a useful new state function. 6.2.3 Extensive and
intensive properties. 6.2.4 Heat capacity. 6.2.5 The relationship between Cp and Cv. 6.3
Measurement of “U and H”: caiorimetry. 6.4 Enthalpy change, ‘rH’ of reactions – reaction
Enthalpy, (a) Standard enthalpy of reactions, (b) Enthalpy changes during transformations,
(c) Standard enthalpy of formation, (d) Thermo chemical equations, (e) Hess’s law of
constant Heat summation. 6.5 Enthalpies for different types of reactions, (a) Standard
enthalpy of combustion (“c H°) (b) Enthalpy of atomization (“a Ho). phase transition,
sublimation and ionization, (c) Bond Enthalpy (“bond Hf ) (d) Enthalpy of solution (“sol f )
and dilution. 6.6 Spontaneity, (a) Is decrease in enthalpy a criterion for spontaneity? (b)
Entropy and spontaneity, the second law of thermodynamics, (c) Gibbs Energy and
spontaneity. 6.7 Gibbs Energy change and equilibrium. 6.8 Absolute entropy and the third
law of thermodynamics.
07 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM AND ACIDS-BASES
7.1 Equilibrium in physical process. 7.2 Equilibrium in chemical process – dynamic
equilibrium. 7.3 Law of chemical equilibrium – Law of mass action and equilibrium
constant. 7.4 Homogeneous equilibria, equilibrium constant in gaseous systems,
Relationship between KP, and KC 7.5 Heterogeneous equilibria. 7.6 Applications of
equilibrium constant. 7.7 Relationship between equilibrium constant K, reaction quotient
Q and Gibbs energy G. 7.8 Factors affecting equilibria.- Le-chatelier’s principle
application to industrial synthesis of ammonia and sulphur trioxide. J.9 Ionic Equilibrium
in solutions. 7.10 Acids, bases and salts- Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis concepts
of acids and bases. 7.11 Ionisation of acids and bases -Ionisation constant of water and
it’s ionic product- pH scale-ionisation constants, of weak acids-ionisation of weak basesrelation
between Ka and Kb and poly basic acids and di and poly acidic bases-factors
affecting acid strength-common ion effect in the ionization of acids and bases-hydrolysis
of salts and pH of their solutions. 7.12 Buffer solutions-designing of buffer solutionpreparation
of acidic buffer. 7.13 Solubility equilibria of sparingly soluble salts, solubility
product constant common ion effect on solubility of Ionic salts.
08 HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS
8.1 Position of hydrogen in the periodic table. 8.2 Dihydrogen-occurance and isotopes.
8.3 Preparation of dihydrogen 8.4 Properties of dihydrogen. 8.5 Hydrides: ionic,
covalent. and non-stiochiometric hydrides. 8.6 Water- physical properties; structure of
water, ice. Chemical properties of water; hard and soft water temporary and permanent
hardness of water. Hydrogen peroxide: preparation; physical properties; structure and
chemical properties; storage and uses. Heavy water. 8.9 Hydrogen as a fuel.
9. s– BLOCK ELEMENTS: (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)
Group 1 Elements: 9.1 Alkali metals; electronic configurations; atomic and ionic radii;
ionization enthalpy; hydration enthalpy; physical properties; chemical properties; uses.
9.2 General characteristics of the compounds of the alkali metals: oxides; halides; salts
of oxy acids. 9.3 Anomalous properties of lithium: differences and similarities with other
alkali metals, diagonal relationship; similarities between lithium and magnesium.
9.4 Some important compounds of sodium- Sodium carbonate; sodium chloride; sodium
hydroxide; sodium hydrogen carbonate. 9.5 Biological importance of sodium and
Group 2 Elements: 9.6 Alkaline earth elements; electronic configuration; ionization
enthalpy; hydration enthalpy; physical properties; chemical properties; uses. 9.7
General characteristics of compounds of the alkaline earth metals: oxides, hydroxides,
halides, salts of oxyacids (carbonates; sulphates and nitrates). 9.8 Anomalous behavior
of beryllium; its diagonal relationship with aluminum. 9.9 Some important compounds
of calcium: Preparation and uses of calcium oxide ; calcium hydroxide; calcium
carbonate; plaster of paris; cement. 9.10 Biological importance of calcium and
10. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS:GROUP-13
(BORON FAMILY) 10.1 General introduction – electronic configuration, atomic radii,
ionization enthalpy, electro negativity; physical & chemical properties. 10.2 Important
trends and anomalous properties of boron. 10.3 Some important compounds of boron –
borax, ortho boric acid, diborane. 10.4 Uses of boron, aluminium and their compounds.
11. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP-14
(CARBON FAMILY) 11.1 General introduction – electronic configuration, atomic radii,
ionization enthalpy, electro negativity; physical & chemical properties. 11.2 Important
trends and anomalous properties of carbon. 11.3 Allotropes of carbon. 11.4 Uses of
carbon. 11.5 Some important compounds of carbon and silicon – carbonmonoxide,
carbon dioxide, Silica, silicones, silicates and zeolites.
12. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
12.1 Definition of terms: Air, Water and Soil Pollutions. 12.2 Environmental pollution.
12.3 Atmospheric pollution; gaseous pollution; gaseous air pollutants (oxides of
sulphur; oxides of nitrogen; hydro carbons; oxides of carbon (CO; CO2), Global warning
and green house effect. 12.4 Acid Rain- particulate pollutants- smog. 12.5 Stratospheric
Pollution: formation and breakdown of ozone- ozone hole- effects of depletion of the
ozone layer. 12.6 Water Pollution: causes of water pollution; international standards for
drinking water. 12.7 Soil Pollution: pesticides, industrial wastes. 12.8 Strategies to
control environmental pollution- waste management- collection and disposal.
12.9 Green chemistry: green chemistry in day-to-day life; dry cleaning of clothes;
bleaching of paper; synthesis of chemicals.
13. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY- SOME BASIC PRINCIPLESAND TECHNIQUES
13.1 General introduction. 13.2 Tetravalency of carbon: shapes of organic compounds.
13.3 Structural representations of organic compounds. 13.4 Classification of organic
compounds. 13.5 Nomenclature of organic compounds. 13.6 Isomerism. 13.7
Fundamental concepts in organic reaction mechanisms. 13.7.1 Fission of covalent bond.
13.7.2 Nucleophiles and electrophiles. 13.7.3 Electron movements in organic reactions.
13.7.4 Electron displacement effects in covalent bonds. 13.7.5 Types of Organic
reactions. 13.8 Methods of purification of organic compounds. 13 9 Qualitative
elemental analysis of organic compounds. 13.10 Quantitative elemental analysis of
13.11 Classification of Hydrocarbons. 13.12 Alkanes – nomenclature, isomerism
(structural and conformations of ethane only) 13.12.1 Preparation of alkanes 13.12.2
Properties – physical properties and chemical reactivity, substitution reactionshalogenation
(free radical mechanism), combustion, controlled oxidation, isomerisation,
aromatization, reaction with steam and Pyrolysis. 13.13 Alkenes- Nomenclature,
structure of ethane, Isomerism (structural and geometrical). 13.13.1 Methods of
preparation. 13.13.2 Properties- Physical and chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen,
halogen, water, sulphuric acid, Hydrogen halides (Mechanism- ionic and peroxide effect,
Markovnikov’s, anti-Markovnikov’s or Kharasch effect). Oxidation, ozonolysis and
polymerization. 13.14 Alkynes – nomenclature arid isomerism, structure of acetylene.
Methods of preparation of acetylene. 13.14.1 Physical properties, chemical reactionsacidic
character of acetylene, addition reactions- of hydrogen, halogen, hydrogen
halides and water. Polymerization. 13.15 Aromatic hydrocarbons: Nomenclature and
isomerism. Structure of benzene, resonance and aromaticity. 13.15.1 Preparation of
benzene. Physical properties. Chemical properties: Mechanism of electrophilic
substitution. Electrophilic substitution reactions- nitration, sulphonation, halogenation,
Friedel-Craft’s alkylation and acylation. 13.15.2 Directive influence of functional groups
in mono substituted benzene, Carcinogenicity and toxicity.